There are no gender distinctions in Chinese. The pronouns he, she, and it all share the same sound.
In English there is a gender distinction. The gender of the pronoun depends on what the pronoun refers to.
Ex.: My mother ate her meal. She liked it. The meal was given to her. The meal was hers. ["Mother" is a female, so the pronouns are the feminine "her, she, hers."]
My father ate his meal. He liked it. The meal was given to him. ["Father" is a male, so the pronouns are the masculine "his, he, him."]
The dog ate its meal. It liked it. [When you don't know if the noun is male or female, use its, it.]
Articles: the, a, an
There are no articles in Chinese.
Articles, the, a, an, are used all the time in English.
Here is a great website that clearly explains this grammar rule.
Plurality (more than one) is rarely expressed in Chinese. As a result, the "s" at the end of a noun that indicates plurality is often dropped by Chinese students.
[example of the dropping of an "s"-- I've seen many film.
corrected: I've seen many films.]
Whenever you are speaking or writing about more than one, you typically add an "s."
Coordinating conjunctions can join together words, phrases and independent clauses.
Coordinating conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Ex.: (words) I like milk and cookies.
(phrases) The ducks on the lake or the men on the beach are visible every day.
(independent clauses) The woman called for a taxi, but she decided to walk to work before it arrived.
When independent clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction, a comma goes just after the word before the conjunction.
Subordinating conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses.
A subordinate conjunction performs two functions within a sentence.
First, it illustrates the importance of the independent clause.
Second, it provides a transition between two ideas in the same sentence. The transition always indicates a place, time, or cause and effect relationship. For example: We looked in the metal canister where Ginger often hides her candy. [We looked in the metal canister=independent clause; where Ginger often hides her candy=dependent clause. where=subordinating conjunction
There are a lot of subordinating conjunctions. Here are some:
after although as as soon as because before by the time even if
even though every time if in case in the event that just in case now that
once only if since since the first time though unless until when whenever whereas whether or not while while
If the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, place a comma after it.
If the subordinate clause follows the independent clause, do not put a comma after the independent clause.
Ex.: As Sherri blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she caught her hair on fire.
Sara begins to sneeze whenever she opens the window to get a breath of fresh air.
When the doorbell rang, my dog Skeeter barked loudly.
Correlative conjunctions come in pairs, and you have to use both of them in different places in a sentence to make them work. They get their name from the fact that they work together (co-) and relate one sentence element to another.
Correlative conjunctions include pairs like:
not only/but also
I want either the cheesecake or the frozen hot chocolate.
I’ll have both the cheesecake and the frozen hot chocolate.
I didn’t know whether you’d want the cheesecake or the frozen hot chocolate, so I got you both.
Oh, you want neither the cheesecake nor the frozen hot chocolate? No problem.
I’ll eat them both - not only the cheesecake but also the frozen hot chocolate.
I see you’re in the mood not for dessert but appetizers. I’ll help you with those too.
Here are some more pairs of correlative conjunctions:
as/as - Bowling isn’t as fun as skeet shooting.
such/that - Such was the nature of their relationship that they never would have made it even if they’d wanted to.
scarcely(hardly)/when - I had scarcely(hardly) walked in the door when I got the call and had to run right back out again.
as many/as - There are as many curtains as there are windows.
no sooner/than - I’d no sooner lie to you than strangle a puppy.
rather/than - She’d rather play the drums than sing.
A sentence is a subject (the person, place, or thing) and a verb (the action or state of being of the subject) that make a complete thought.
"Jiaqi ran." is a sentence because there is a subject: Jiaqi, and an action that the subject is doing: ran, and, even though this is a very short sentence, it is a complete thought.
However, while the following: "After Jiaqi ran" has a subject: Jiaqi, and an action the subject is doing: ran, it is not a complete thought. After Jiaqi ran what happened? ["After Jiaqi ran, she was tired." now is a sentence with a complete thought.]
Subjects and verbs must agree in terms of being both singular or both plural.
A singular subject must have a singular verb.
A plural subject must have a plural verb.
As noted before, to make a noun plural, you will usually (but not always) add an "s." However, to make a verb plural, you do NOT add an "s." SINGULAR verbs have the added "s." This rule only applies to actions that are happening in present tense, that is, right at the moment they occur.
My mother runs to the corner.
The boys run to the corner.
My mother AND father (two people) run to the store.
Past tense verbs usually take the same form whether singular or plural.
My mother ran to the corner.
The boys ran to the corner.
My mother had run to the corner every day until she broke her leg.
The boys had run to the corner every day until it got cold.
Future tense verbs also usually take the same form whether singular or plural.
My mother will run to the corner tomorrow.
The boys will run to the corner tomorrow.
Both express something that happens in the future.
I will eat dinner tonight.
I will be late if the traffic doesn't go faster.
I think I will wash the dog now.
I will go to the movies with you tonight.
You will earn bonus points.
If it rains, you will get wet.
If I had known about the party earlier, I would have gone.
If I knew where he lived, I would visit him.
Would you like to go to the movies tonight?